- Threats: "You'll better agree, or else . . ."
- Arbitrariness: "I want it because I want it."
- Close-mindedness: "Under no circumstances will I agree to - - or even consider - - that proposal."
- Appeal to fairness: "What should we do?"
- Appeal to logic and legitimacy: "I think this makes sense, because . . ."
- Consider constituent perspectives: "How can each of us explain this agreement to colleagues?"