Over the next forty years global society will need extra investment money to:
- Develop and implement substitutes for scarce resources like conventional oil and gas and phosphorus.
- Develop and implement solutions for dangerous emissions like CFCs, SO2, NOX, and climate gases.
- Replace ecological services that formerly were free, such as water from glaciers, or underground water for agriculture, or fish protein.
- Repair accumulated damage from past human activity, which could include decommissioning nuclear power plants or removing offshore installation.
- Rebuild real estate and infrastructure destroyed by extreme weather, and compensate for a shorter average lifetime for infrastructure.
- Maintain armed forces to fight off immigration, defend resource supplies, and provide manpower during more frequent emergencies.